By Phill Jones
For billions of years, cells have used an inventive method of storing and processing directions to make proteins, the molecules that perform very important features for the telephone. facts is warehoused in DNA molecules, copied into RNA molecules, after which learn via a cell's protein synthesis gear. it's the genetic code that allows this information move to exist. The Genetic Code tracks the major experiments and discoveries that set in movement efforts to crack the code and explores the numerous methods people have utilized wisdom of the genetic code to change gene job. From the engineering of genetically converted crops and animals to the revision of genes in human cells, scientists are editing mobile procedures by means of manipulating the genetic code, the cell's personal language.
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Extra resources for The Genetic Code (Science Foundations)
A DNA molecule has four types of bases: adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine. Scientists refer to the bases by the first letter of their names. 2 The structure of DNA resembles a ladder. The nucleotides twist in a double helix, joined together by base pairs of nucleotides. The “rungs” of the “ladder” are made up of these base pairs. 36 The Genetic Code During the late 1940s, Erwin Chargaff, a scientist at Columbia University in New York City, analyzed DNA from many different sources. He studied the nucleotide contents of DNA from human, cow, salmon, yeast, and various bacteria.
Tools of the Genetic Engineer The word “engineering” refers to the use of science to design and to construct things. Genetic engineering involves using science to isolate, analyze, and modify genes. Scientists who work in this field also transfer genes from one organism to another. The transferred gene is often called a transgene, while an organism that receives a transgene may be called a transgenic organism or a genetically engineered organism. Genetic engineering relies upon recombinant DNA technology.
Certain triplets of bases instruct the cell’s protein-making machinery to start or to stop protein synthesis. Researchers began to realize that the genetic code is a data transfer system as complex as a code that might be used by a spy. The Genetic Code at Work: Gene Expression I n 1957, Francis Crick proposed that genetic data moves in only one direction. That is, genetic data transmits from DNA to RNA to protein. After genetic information has passed into protein, the information stays there: It cannot transfer back into RNA or DNA.
The Genetic Code (Science Foundations) by Phill Jones