By Elena Marushiakova, Vesselin Popov
This publication explores different groups dwelling in important Asia and the Caucasus, who're more often than not accrued less than the umbrella time period of ‘Gypsies’, their multidimensional identities, self-appellations and labels given to them via surrounding populations, researcher and policy-makers. The publication offers a variety of Gypsy and Gypsy-like groups and offers a accomplished overview in their historical past, demography, methods of lifestyles, prior and current occupations, and modern migration in post-Soviet house. The authors situate those groups in ancient settings and likewise within the wider context of up to date evolving worldwide and areal developments.
The publication should be of curiosity to students and scholars of historical past, sociology, social anthropology, nationalities reports, worldwide and relevant Asia and Caucasus areal reports, and Gypsy/Romani experiences, and in addition for policy-makers and civic firms.
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This publication explores various groups dwelling in vital Asia and the Caucasus, who're typically accrued below the umbrella time period of ‘Gypsies’, their multidimensional identities, self-appellations and labels given to them by means of surrounding populations, researcher and policy-makers. The ebook offers a variety of Gypsy and Gypsy-like groups and gives a complete evaluate in their historical past, demography, methods of existence, previous and current occupations, and modern migration in post-Soviet area.
Additional info for Gypsies in Central Asia and the Caucasus
He was a delegate to the first USSR Congress of Collective-Farm Shock-Workers in 1933 (Назаров 1968b, 1969b, 1970; Абашин 2004). In 1927 in Kyrgyzstan kolkhoz Национал (National) was established with 27 Roma families; in 1931 and 1936 this kolkhoz was replaced twice in Ukraine (Бугай 2015: 56). During the years of mass collectivization in the 1930s two Gypsy kolkhozes were established in Uzbekistan – the Makhmudov kolkhoz in Fergana region and Yangi Turmush (New Life) in Tashkent region – which brought together over 300 formerly nomadic and semi-nomadic Gypsies.
The situation continues unabated and, to date, there have been no significant efforts to improve it. *** Of particular importance is the tricky question of the number of Central Asian Gypsies at different times. 5 million people (Мейендорф 1975: 98). GYPSIES OF CENTRAL ASIA 31 According to the population census of the Russian Empire from 1897 in Central Asia (meaning only the Governor-general or Russian Turkestan without the Emirate of Bukhara and the Khanate of Khiva) 643 people were noted as Gypsies (Crowe 1994: 170), without indicating, however, how many of them were Central Asian Gypsies and how many Roma who had moved to these new territories of the Empire.
In addition, the adults underwent illiteracy liquidation courses and courses for combating “religious prejudices” and for equal position of women. A radical change in Soviet national policy began with the new Constitution of the USSR, adopted in 1936, which affected the Gypsies. Gypsy schools and classes were closed and pupils moved into mainstream education, the mass publication of texts in Romanes ceased. The Gypsy GYPSIES OF CENTRAL ASIA 29 artels and kolkhozes were dissolved, and those engaged in them redirected towards existing collective farms in rural areas and towards factories and enterprises; the process was a slow one, and a number of Gypsies renewed their nomadic or semi-nomadic way of life.
Gypsies in Central Asia and the Caucasus by Elena Marushiakova, Vesselin Popov