By Marc Bekoff
Why do animals play? Play has been defined in animals as diversified as reptiles, birds and mammals, so what advantages does it supply and the way did it evolve? cautious, quantitative stories of social, locomotor and item play habit at the moment are commencing to resolution those questions and make clear many different points of either animal and human habit. This designated interdisciplinary quantity brings jointly the most important findings approximately play in quite a lot of species together with people. subject matters approximately play comprise the evolutionary background of play, play constitution, functionality and improvement, and intercourse and person transformations. Animal Play is destined to develop into the benchmark quantity during this topic for a few years to return, and may offer a resource of proposal and figuring out for college students and researchers in behavioral biology, neurobiology, psychology and anthropology.
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Additional resources for Animal Play: Evolutionary, Comparative and Ecological Perspectives
The youngest animals display to many small objects while older juveniles and adults display mostly to conspecifics. The high frequency of this behavior among juvenile P. nelsoni allows each individual to have many interactions with others, providing substantial opportunities for learning to occur. This explanation, however, fails to account for display behavior in juvenile females, nor does it explain partner preferences. Although observations of adult courtship are clearly deficient, there is no evidence whatsoever to suggest that this display is used in contexts other than courtship in nature.
What I think the evidence presented here shows is that play like phenomena do occur in turtles, the extant survivors of the most ancient reptile lineage for which living representatives exist. The archaic 'anapsid brain' may not only have had the potential for rudimentary play but, insofar as this potential was shared by the reptilian ancestors of mammals, might itself have contributed to the evolution of quantitative advances in cognitive abilities eventually to be found in the mammals of subsequent eras.
1977. Learning processes in reptiles. In Biology of the Reptilia. Vol. 7. Ecology and Behavior, (ed. C. Gans & D. Tinkle), pp. 555-681. New York: Academic Press. Burghardt, G. M. 1982. Comparison matters: curiosity, bears, surplus energy, and why reptiles do not play. Behav. , 5, 159-60. Burghardt, G. M. 1984. On the origins of play. In Play in Animals and Humans, (ed. P. K. Smith), pp. 1-41. London: Basil Blackwell. Burghardt, G. M. 1988. Precocity, play, and the ectotherm-endotherm transition: Profound reorganization or superficial adaptation?
Animal Play: Evolutionary, Comparative and Ecological Perspectives by Marc Bekoff