By Irwin E. Alber
Engineers have to gather “Back-of-the-Envelope” survival abilities to procure tough quantitative solutions to real-world difficulties, relatively while engaged on tasks with huge, immense complexity and intensely restricted assets. within the case experiences taken care of during this publication, we express step by step examples of the actual arguments and the ensuing calculations received utilizing the quick-fire approach. We additionally display the estimation advancements that may be bought by using extra specified physics-based Back-of-the-Envelope engineering types. those diversified tools are used to procure the suggestions to a couple of layout and function estimation difficulties bobbing up from of the main complicated real-world engineering tasks: the distance travel and the Hubble area Telescope satellite tv for pc.
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9 shows the basic estimation steps in the form of a sketch and handwritten calculations on the back of an envelope. A detailed explanation of the assumptions and calculations follows. g. a star). They are assumed to be parallel, having come from an object at inﬁnity. The incoming rays reﬂect oﬀ the concave primary mirror and are directed by its curvature towards the on-axis focal point in accordance with the simple reﬂectance law in which the angle of incidence equals the angle of reﬂection. 9.
Each of the diﬀerent estimates is based on increasingly improved levels of knowledge regarding the magnitudes and the physics of the key system parameters. We use simple models for the Shuttle structures and for the thrust generating performance of the Shuttle’s rocket engines. On obtaining our ﬁrst crude solution we will examine the sensitivity of our results to diﬀerent input data and diﬀerent model reﬁnements. Although it may be a time-consuming process to obtain more detailed propulsion or structural information, it will improve the robustness of our physics model.
1 1:0 kg/m 3 2 ¼ ð250 m/sÞ ð2 Á 0:1 radiansÞð70 m Â 10 mÞ 4:0 2 ¼ 3:4 Â 10 6 N % 764,000 lbf Takeoﬀ mass estimate is then m¼ L 3:4 Â 10 6 N % ¼ 3:4 Â 10 5 kg g 10 m/s 2 Takeoﬀ thrust (4 engines) T4 engines ¼ maircraft Á aaverage % ð3:4 Â 10 5 kgÞð2:33 m/s 2 Þ ¼ 792,000 N ¼ 178,000 lbf 12 Introduction [Ch. 1 lists tabulated values of takeoﬀ thrust, units of lbf, for several diﬀerent versions of the 747. Note that the tabulated thrusts range from 46,500 lbf to 63,000 lbf depending on the engine manufacturer and the particular version of the aircraft.
Aerospace Engineering on the Back of an Envelope (Springer Praxis Books) by Irwin E. Alber