By George F. Chadwick
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Additional resources for A Systems View of Planning. Towards a Theory of the Urban and Regional Planning Process
It is possible to read up to about 500 words per minute without skipping, paying some attention to all of it and making some use of it: this is equivalent to an intake of information of about 40 bits per secondf (at say 5 letters per word and 1 bit per letter). In chess, a master player playing simultaneous games blindfold can keep track of approximately 40 games and can play them out in about 6 hours. Assuming 40 double moves per game, the master learns one move every 14 seconds, which is enough to carry on a sophisticated strategy with a low cumulative error rate.
And Pribram point out, behaviour cannot be accounted for entirely by the Image : a Plan is needed to complete the explanation. Such a Plan will control the sequence of operations that a person may be carrying out—much in the same way that a computer program controls the sequence of operations of an electronic computer. Now behaviour appears to be organised simultaneously in human beings at several levels of complexity, so that Miller et al. are led to define a Plan as: "any hierarchical process in the organism that can control the order in which a sequence of operations is to be performed".
Each system parameter may take a variety of values to describe a system state. "Attributes are the properties of object parameters. A property is an external manifestation of the way in which an object is known, observed, or introduced in a process. Attributes characterise the parameters of systems, making possible the assignment of a value and a dimensional description. The attributes of objects may be altered as a result of system operation. "Relationships are the bonds that link objects and attributes in the system process.
A Systems View of Planning. Towards a Theory of the Urban and Regional Planning Process by George F. Chadwick