By Josephb F. Hair, G. Tomas M. Hult, Christian M. Ringle, Marko Sarstedt
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Additional resources for A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM)
Measurement Theory Measurement theory specifies how the latent variables (constructs) are measured. Generally, there are two different way s to measure unobservable variables. One approach is referred to as reflective mea surement, and the other is a formative measurement. 4 are modeled based on a formative measurement model. Note that the directional arrows are pointing from the indica tor variables (x1 to x3 for Y1 and x4 to x6 for Y2) to the construct, indi cating a causal (predictive) relationship in that direction.
Armonk, NY: Sharpe. , Ringle, C. , & Sarstedt, M. (2012). Using partial least squares path modeling in international advertising research: Basic concepts and recent issues. In S. ), Handbook of research in international advertising (pp. 252-276). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar. Joreskog, K. , & Wold, H. (1982). The ML and PLS techniques for model ing with latent variables: Historical and comparative aspects. In H. Wold & K. G. ), Systems under indirect observation, Part I (pp. 263-270). Amsterdam: North-Holland.
While some of the arguments are consistent with the method's capabilities, others are not. 6 An Introduction to Structural Equation Modeling 19 Rules of Thumb for Choosing Between PLS-SEM and CB-SEM Use PLS-SEM when • The goal is predicting key target constructs or identifying key "driver" constructs. • Formatively measured constructs are part of the structural model. , the construct must include both formative and reflective indicators to meet identification requirements). • The structural model is complex (many constructs and many indicators).
A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) by Josephb F. Hair, G. Tomas M. Hult, Christian M. Ringle, Marko Sarstedt